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dc.creatorSchiavon, Jorge A.
dc.creatorCrow, David
dc.creatorMaldonado Hernández, Gerardo de Jesús
dc.creatorGonzález González, Guadalupe
dc.description.abstractThe principal findings from the fourth edition of the survey Mexico, the Americas, and the World can be summarized in 11 key trends observed in Mexicans’ international political culture and national mood. In general terms, the survey results suggest a portrait of a conflicted, indecisive Mexico in the year of the Bicentennial of Mexico’s Independence and the Centennial of the Revolution. 1. A country largely nationalistic but unsatisfied, that shows signals of openness to the exterior. Mexicans are proud of their nationality and identify as Mexicans first, but are unsatisfied with the achievements of their country over the 200 years since independence. The population is divided between symbolic nationalism and openness towards those foreign influences deemed to improve standards of living. Resistance to open the country culturally, economically, and politcally has subtly but significantly loosened. 2. A country that is pessimistic and overwhelmed, but with aspirations. Though the outside world is viewed with pessimism and apprehension, and direct contact with other countries through travel and family ties has indeed declined, Mexicans favor active international participation and aspire for Mexico to play a prominent role in the world. 3. A country interested in participating in global issues, but with a deficit of attention, reluctant to invest resources abroad, and unwilling to assume leadership. Mexicans are uninformed about national or international politics, and are not willing to invest resources, assume responsibilities, or carry out international actions that imply costs or larger commitments. 4. A country confident in its soft power. Both leaders and the public overwhelmingly favor the exercise of soft power and believe in its capacity to wield influence through cultural diplomacy and international trade. On the contrary, there is wide opposition to Mexico becoming a military power. 5. A country with a foreign policy synchronized with its own level of prestige and with the needs of its population. Mexicans are more pragmatic than idealistic or altruistic about the threats and priorities for action abroad. 6. A country anchored in the Americas and positioned as a regional actor. The aspirations, interests, priorities, and identities of Mexicans are concentrated almost exclusively in North America and Latin America. Mexico has positioned itself more as a regional actor with priorities centered in the western hemisphere. 7. A country without a global vision or perspective in Asia Pacific and Europe. There is little interest in other regions or countries outside of the American continent. In general, the population is concerned with neither emerging nor traditional powers. In the particular case of Asia Pacific, this disinterest reveals a lack of visión that prevents Mexicans from recognizing the opportunities and risks presented by changes in the global distribution of power and the emergence of Asia as the primary engine of global economic growth. 8. A country of selective, superficial, and limited multilateralism. Mexicans trust multilateral organizations, even more than internal actors such as politicians, the police force, and the president. Nevertheless, they prioritize other objectives over strengthening the United Nations or Organization of American States. Mexico’s multilateral commitment is superficial: Mexicans are unwilling to accept multilateral decisions or delegate authority when such action is viewed as contrary to national interests. 9. A country that aspires to a special relationship with the United States. Mexicans would prefer to seek a separate agreement with the United States rather than coordinate with other countries that may have common interests based on geographical proximity or cultural bonds, such as Canada or Latin America. With the arrival of president Barack Obama, survey results reflect an improvement not only in the image of and trust towards the United States, but also in the possibilities for cooperation between the two nations. 10. A country of migrants struggling to resolve its contradictions as both a destination for and source of immigration. Mexicans favor an immigration policy that is both comprehensive and open, centered on protecting migrants’ rights and resolving the contradiction between the rights demanded for Mexican emigrants to other countries and the rights granted to immigrants in Mexico. Nevertheless, they are opposed to unrestricted immigration from Central America and to any Latin American integration that implies the free movement of individuals across the region. 11. A country with dissolving regional differences, but with large gaps between socioeconomic groups and divisions among leaders. For the first time in the history of the survey differences in identity between the North, South, and Center of the country have fallen. Nevertheless, there are significant differences across gender, age, education, and income, as well as differences between the general public and leaders. Leaders are divided by party affiliation and profession, most prominently in their evaluation of the gov